Thursday, May 21, 2020

Essay on Why Junk Food Should Be Taxed - 741 Words

Essay # 4 Jose Nunez 07/24/12 Junk Food should be Taxed Who has not eaten junk food at least once? I did it, and to me, as to many Americans, the junk food is the most delicious type of food. However, I know it is the unhealthiest food and the main cause of obesity in the United States. On the other hand, the U.S. government feels that is important to intervene in junk food lover’s lives to help them to improve their health and their food choices. In order to combat the obesity and other health problems that junk food causes, the U.S. government has been looking for many ways to prevent and decrease the number of obese people in the country. They believe that adding taxes to the junk food is a great idea that might help people to†¦show more content†¦If less people eat junk food, there will be fewer diseases and medical costs will decline. The government will save a lot money by adding taxes on junk food, but also will save many peoples’ lives which is more important and trough this policy the government will inter fere in peoples’ food choices in a good way. On the other hand, the opposition believes that is not fair that the government wants to interfere in their own food choices. The U.S. government by adding taxes on junk food wants to tell people what they have to eat and what they don’t have to. People must have the right and the freedom to decide what is good and healthy for them and what is not. Also, they affirm that adding taxes on junk food won’t help to combat health diseases and even the obesity on this country because people that love junk food will still buy it, no matter how much it will costs. In addition, some people think that the junk food is convenient for low income people because it saves them the time and money that they have and most of the time it’s not a treat for them, it is the only type of food that they can afford. However, I think that they are completely wrong because junk food is cheap that is true, but it is unhealthy and it is ki lling and causing many health problems to the people that eat it. After certain time people that consume junk food will have to deal with the problems that eating this type of food cause and they will spend moreShow MoreRelatedJunk Food Tax1385 Words   |  6 PagesJunk Food tax is defined asâ€Å"taxing less nutritional value food such as sugary pop while food with high nutritional value will not be taxed.† (Rupert Taylor, 2009). Junk Food is generally consumed by people with a wide range of ages, a majority of children, adults or even elderly love consuming junk food. It is likely to say that junk food contains quite a lot of fat and food additives which have low nutritional value and bad to our health. Research appears to show (Dr. Michael Booth, 2009) that theRead MoreObesity : Should Unhealthy Food Be Taxed951 Words   |  4 PagesSolving Obesity: Should Unhealthy Food Be Taxed There is an epidemic striking the United States. This epidemic, one of obesity, can contribute much of its growth over the last half century to one common link: junk food. Michael Thomas, correspondent for U.S. News and World Report, doubts the effectiveness of imposing a â€Å"junk food† tax in an attempt to curb obesity. With support from respected scientists in the nutrition field, like Dr. Oliver Mytton, Mr. Thomas could not be more wrong. While peopleRead MoreThe Obesity Epidemic in the United States664 Words   |  3 PagesSome obese countries have enforced an extra high tax on fast foods and other high calorie foods, and many people believe that the U.S. should adopt the fat tax as well. According to Dictionary.com, the fat tax is â€Å"a tax imposed on or proposed for high-fat or otherwise unhealthy foodstuffs†. Although a tax on junk food could reduce obesity, the low prices could protect low income families from going broke, and therefore a tax on junk food w ould not be beneficial to America. One of the main groupsRead MoreHigh Consumption Of Junk Food Essay1206 Words   |  5 Pagesconsuming large amounts of foods high in salt, fat and sugar due to low costs and easy accessibility. High consumption of junk-food is detrimental to human health and has resulted in the consideration of junk-food taxes all over the world in order to defeat the current obesity epidemic (Encarnaà §Ãƒ £o et al., 2016). Governments all over the world should tax foods and beverages that are high in fat, simple sugars and salt because obesity is a rising global issue and junk-food taxes will help to decreaseRead MoreWhat Can We Do?1526 Words   |  7 PagesWhat Can We Do Ever wanted to grab something to eat, and all the cheap food options were where junk food? Have you ever once gone out of the way to go to a grocery store to not have enough money to spend on fruits, and vegetables, but end up buying 5 cartons of ramen noodles instead? Majority of our foods that are easily accessible are processed, therefore making junk food enticing and easier to buy. (Union of†¦) Having healthy food more expensive is dangerous for ourselves, and for our communities.Read MoreThe Increasing Popularity Of Fast Food1602 Words   |  7 Pagesaffordable and easily accessible. This involves the increasing popularity of fast food restaurants. The increased rate of diabetes and obesity has become a result of people choosing to consume fast food more than they should. A solution to this issue is implementing a large tax on the company’s products. By having a significant increase in fast food tax, it will h and suggest a healthier lifestyle. Advertisements for these fast food chains are literally everywhere. They have endless amounts of commercialsRead MoreM1-Assess how the social context may influence the ability of health campaigns to change behaviour in relations to health1039 Words   |  5 Pageslot of money to campaign his idea and to promote healthier school meals. There is many strength of Jamie Oliver approach. One strength is Jamie Oliver’s school dinner has improved academic results. Number of absences is down after chef changed junk food menu. The number of authorised absences — which are generally due to illness – fell by 15% in the wake of his 2004 Feed Me Better campaign, brought into the nations sitting rooms via the Channel 4 series Jamies School Dinners. Also 75%of parentsRead MoreOverweight and Obesity: the New Endemic Diseases Essay906 Words   |  4 PagesFast food, or junk food as some call it, is becoming more popular than ever; its convenient, predictable and fast. It has become a part of the busy American lifestyle. Eating at McDonalds once every day and spending the rest of the day in a school bench or in front of the computer or television is making todays children fatter and fatter. Overweight is today a bigger problem in the world than starvation. In 1999 13% of the children aged 6 to 11 and 14% of ad olescents aged 12 to 19 in the UnitedRead MoreAmerica s Present Economic State, Citizens Are Looking For One Thing1778 Words   |  8 Pagesmeans. There has been an increased approval in fast food and convenience store establishments that provide swift and stimulating products. It is the inexpensive and easy way to purchase these â€Å"goods† that is slowly deterring the well-being of our country. The reason behind the low prices of such unhealthy choices provided by fast food restaurants and convenience stores is attributed to the subsidizing of producers of companies making the junk food. These companies such as McDonald’s, Coke, Pepsi, andRead MoreThe Government Should Not Be Taxing Us For Someone Else s Needs1709 Words   |  7 Pagespoints; taxes are just to expensive that s why we need to get rid of foreign aid. This paper is about how the government is taking our tax money and giving it to people in lower income countries. Us government should not be taxing us for someone else s needs because 1. People are already having trouble with taxes, and now that we added this it is going to be almost impossible for some people to live in this economy. 2. People that care about this should be funding this, not the people that have

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Leadership Styles And Evaluating An Enhanced Approach

Introduction In this essay I will be reflecting on leadership styles and evaluating an enhanced approach. Leadership consists of people, authority, influence, change, direction, purpose and unified achievement (Youki, 2013). Leadership is needed throughout many situations in life, and without this there would be little unity and sense of direction within teams. To get a task completed there needs to be a person with the confidence to clearly and concisely convey what to do and who should do it. Therefore, to make a good leader it is essential to have good leadership. To ensure there is good leadership there needs to be a leadership style. Leadership style is â€Å"the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans and motivating†¦show more content†¦The study showed that based on how leaders lead their teams, each obtained different results. While constructing this study, autocratic, democratic and Laissez-Faire were the three styles of leadership that were identified. F rom the three identified it was clear that the autocratic was a far more superior style compared to the other two, with Laissez-Faire being the least superior style. Although the Lewin leadership style is an old style it is currently used as it can help leaders to adapt their leadership styles based on these findings. The autocratic style is where the leader makes all the decisions without involving the group (Steinburg, 2008). The leader will not actively participate with the group, and will just give clear directions to group members. This type of leader will sort out the tasks for the team and will not notify members of any future plans. Solely having the knowledge is what gives the leader the confidence to make decisions. The leader when evaluating team members gives praise and criticism freely, but it is given based on their own personal standards rather than based on an objective/unbiased standard (Combe, 2014). This leadership style works best where there is a strict time limit, so group decisions cannot be made or when the leader is knowledgeable enough which produces the confidence to make the best decision (Dam, 2007). I feel that this would not cause misunderstandings within the group as they will

Biopsych Cold Pressor Free Essays

string(22) " 7 of the 24 studies\." Physiology of Behaviour; Sex differences in physiological responses of the cold pressor test. Abstract This lab report aims to analyse the sex differences in a physiological responses to a potentially aversive physiological stress inducing stimuli. This was conducted by a cold pressor test. We will write a custom essay sample on Biopsych Cold Pressor or any similar topic only for you Order Now 8 males and 8 females participated. Heart rate, respiration rate, and galvanic skin was recorded whilst participants undertook the CPT test. Results showed no significant differences that there is a gender difference in experimental induced stimuli of pain. Introduction To say that male and females are biologically and physiologically the same is denying physical reality’s differentiation takes place immediately as the male or female begins to develop within the womb. The sex hormones –primarily oestrogen and testosterone–have a significant impact on the behaviour of males and females. Why do boys typically like to play with trucks and girls like to play with dolls? Feminists usually claim this is the result of socialization, but there is growing scientific evidence that boys and girls are greatly influenced by their respective hormones. Within biological psychology the biology and physiological differences are studied thoroughly between male and female. In biological psychology, physiological pain has been studied frequently. Furthering this, the differences between male and female pain response and threshold for pain have been measured in several experiments. Pain is often described as an uncomfortable response to unpleasant stimuli. Different physiological responses take place when pain is perceived. The International Association for the Study of Pain’s widely used definition states: â€Å"Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage†. (Bonica,1979) Pain motivates the individual to remove themselves from these unpleasant stimuli or situations, to protect the body. Pain is a part of the body’s defence system. Humans attempt to avoid similar painful and unpleasant experiences in the future. (Lynn,1984)Most pain resolves promptly once the painful stimulus is removed and the body has healed, but sometimes pain persists despite removal f the stimulus and apparent healing of the body; and sometimes pain arises in the absence of any detectable stimulus, damage or disease. (Raj,2007) People report a pain threshold and a pain tolerance. The pain threshold is the point at which sensation becomes pain, where as Pain tolerance is the amount of pain a person can handle withou t breaking down, either physically or emotionally. Men and women have reported over several studies different measures of pain threshold and pain tolerance in this following study I aim to review the literature between the sex differences of men and women in line with pain tolerance and pain threshold. Previous tests for pain threshold and tolerance that have been used are the electric shock test, tooth pulp stimulation, and tourniquet induced scheme (von Baeyer, 2007. ) The pain experiment that will be used in this lab report is the cold pressor test. The cold pressor test is a cardiovascular test performed by immersing the hand into an ice water container, usually for one minute, and measuring changes in blood pressure and heart rate. Its response is clinically indicative concerning vascular response and pulse excitability. The cold pressor test has been used for several years as a means of measuring experimentally induced pain. The cold pressor test is a preferred method to experimentally induce pain. Even though inducing pain seems unethical, as it is a necessity for psychological research, this method is preferred. It does not cause any psychology damage, it does not cause any damage to tissue or limbs, and minimum means of stimulation is used in comparison to other experimental induced pain methods. Methodology needs to be clear and concise for carrying out the cold pressor test to be accurate. Temperature of the water is important to take into consideration when carrying out the cold pressor test, as temperature activates the sympathetic nervous system to release physiological responses. In a study researching the difference that the temperature of the water can make to the results showed significant outcomes. Twenty-six participants (12 men, 14 women) underwent 4  cold pressor  trials with  temperature order counterbalanced across 1 °C, 3 °C, 5 °C, and 7 °C,  temperatures  representative of  the  range used in previous literature. Significant main effects of temperature  were found for tolerance time, with higher  temperatures  resulting in longer times, and pain intensity, with lower  temperatures  resulting in higher intensities. Gender differences were obtained, with men tolerating  the  stimulus for significantly longer than women. Mitchell et al has found that water variations in CPT pain response in adults elicited by temperature variations of as little as 2 °C. The local warming changes the pain stimulus, enhancing the likelihood of longer tolerance. In conclusion, small differences in water temperature  have a significant effect on pain intensity and tolerance time. Methodology has to be carefully followed to ensure that the water temperature does not change across the study as very minor changes in experimental protocol can produce significant differences in the cold pressor test. (Mitchell, 2004). Other measures can also be obtained from the cold pressor such as pain threshold and pain tolerance. (Lowery, 2006)This is done by requiring a participant to place their hand in the cold pressor for as long as they can. Once pain is present, they let the researcher know. Once the pain is unbearable, the participant removes his/her hand. This provides a measure of threshold (first feeling pain) and tolerance (total time minus threshold). Within the human race, the vast majority of studies obtained results that women are more sensitive than men to experimentally induced pain, as evidenced by the cold pressor test. (Dixon, 2004) In a meta-analysis of 17 studies, Riley et al (1998) found that the effect sizes for sex differences in pain threshold and tolerance were moderate to large. Nevertheless, different experimenters suggested that these sex differences might not be as strongly supported. (Berkley, 1997) In their 1995 review, Fillingim and Maixner summarized 34 human studies. In 24 of these studies, men exhibited less pain than women, but sex differences were reported in only one of several measures or conditions examined in 7 of the 24 studies. You read "Biopsych Cold Pressor" in category "Papers" .) In 10 of the 34 studies, sex differences were not found. . (Fillingim, 1995). The menstrual cycle plays a big part in the explanation of gender differences of pain tolerance and threshold. Studies have previously shown that higher oestrogen levels produce a greater pain perception. One study analysed the difference using the cold pressor test where 22 female students participated at two different phases of the menstrual cycle (days 2–4 and days 20–24). A control group of nineteen male students participated on two occasions, separated by a three week period were used. The results showed that men have a higher pain threshold than women, and women seemed to have a greater threshold for pain in the second period of their cycle. (Helstrom, B. amp; Lundberg, U. 2000) After reviewing and assessing the literature relating to gender differences in pain using the cold pressor test, we have decided to test the following 3 hypotheses; 1. Females and males will differ in pain threshold. 2. Females and males will differ in tolerance to pain. 3. There will be sex difference in physiological stress response (as measured by heart rate, respiration rate, and galvanic skin response) Participants The participants used were a random sample of 8 males and 8 females within an age range of 18-23. The mean age was 20. No participants were wearing tights or clothing that would disrupt the results of the physiological measures All subjects were assumed as English as a first language therefore understanding the instructions of the experiment. All subjects did not suffer from any medical issues outlined in the medical history form which included Reynaud’s Syndrome, high or low blood pressure, diabetes or epilepsy, recent injury or surgery, neurological illness, chronic pain or any type of pain that might influence the results of the experiment. Materials One bucket of iced water at 20% of ice and 80% of water. A towel was used, a biopac physiological recording unit, a computer, a thermometer, electrode pads, timers, and recording sheets. Procedure Experimenters set up the lab, got ice for the bucket and measured the temperature of the water being between 3-5 degrees using a thermometer. The biopac was opened on the computer and electrode pads were set up to be ready for use. Participants were recruited, and asked to read the information sheets and sign the consent forms. Then the participants were brought into the lab where they were then hooked up to the biopac. Electrode pads were placed on the finger, wrist, and ankles. An experiment then explained to the participant the procedure. Participants were asked to take a deep breath when they heard the calibrate button, then a to relax for 2 minutes as a baseline was taken. The participants were then told that they would place their hands in a bucket of iced water. They were told when they began to felt pain say ‘uncomfortable’ and when they could not uphold a further threshold to say ‘stop’. Participants were facing away from the computer so they could not see the recordings. The experimenters then calibrated the biopac as the subject took a deep breath. The experimenters then recorded a baseline measurement of the participants GSR, Heart rate, and respiration. After 2 minutes the participants were then asked to place their hands in the ice bucket of water and the experimenters then measured tolerance and thresholdThe participants were then given a towl to watm their hands and they were debriefed. Experimenters then took note of the results from the GSR, heart rate and respiration rate from the baseline measurement, when the participant said ‘uncomfortable’ and when the participant said ‘stop’. The data was then analysed through means of SPSS. Results Hypothesis 1 When reviewing the overall mean for the differences in male and female response to pain threshold, there was different means found; Females 28. 0 Males; 45. 8. The hypothesis that females and males will differ in pain threshold scores was tested by means of a t-test for independent group samples. The results were as follows; t=1. 83 df=10 p;0. 98, 2tailed. The hypothesis was therefore not upheld. There was no significant difference between the pain threshold scores and gender. Hypothesis 2 When reviewing the overall mean for the differences in male and female results for tolerance to pain; the following means were obtained Females; 110. Males; 45. 8. The hypothesis that females and males will differ in tolerance to pain scores was tested inferentially by means of a t-test for independent group samples. The following results were obtained t=1. 16, df=10, p;0. 273. The hypothesis was therefore not upheld. There was no significant difference between pain tolerance scores and gender. Hyp othesis 3 A 2 way ANOVA was carried out to asses the sex differences in physiological responses. The results showed no significant differences in relation to sex differences in Heart Rate df=1, f=. 066, p=. 802, GSR- df=1, f=. 534, p=. 82, and Respiration rate- df=1, f=. 410, p=. 885 Discussion The results that were collected from the data did not support any of the 3 hypotheses. This can be due to several different reasons. Our results were in line with several different studies, where sex differences were not found in pain tolerance and pain threshold. .) In 10 of the 34 studies reviewed, sex differences were not found to be statistically significant. (Fillingim, 1995). However, other studies have found that gender differences did support significant results. . In 24 studies reviewed by Riley et al, men exhibited less pain than women. Several variables in different studies have been taken into account which produces different outcomes of results. In several studies, it shows that hunger can be important in the threshold and tolerance of pain. One study reported the effects of 2, 10, 14, and 24 hr. of food deprivation (hunger) and of 0, 2, 3, and 4 min. of cold-pressor stimulation. This study found that the relationship between intensity of hunger and level of autonomic response is not linear and that there seemed to be no gender difference between hunger and pain. (Engel, 1959). Personality factors have also shown in some studies to show a difference in pain perception. This study effects of personality and pain catastrophizing upon pain tolerance and pain ratings and to examine the impact of an experimental pain induction on subsequent ratings of catastrophizing. The results found were t that sex differences in catastrophizing and pain responsivity are partially accounted for by the dispositional tendency to describe oneself as emotionally vulnerable. Females tended to describe themselves more emotionally vulnerable than males resulting in males having a higher threshold for pain. (Thorn, 2004). Anxiety can also possibly play a part in the effects of a cold pressor test. It has been found that anxiety based situations can provoke a higher intensity of pain. In Jones (2002) they found that, contrary to previous results, that men had a higher rating of intensity of pain in anxiety provoked situations compared to women. A major issue that has been addressed in the introduction plays a big role to why women can possibly have a higher intensity of pain compared to men. Previous studies have found that it can depend what time in the menstrual cycle that women are in can have an effect on their ratings and perceptions of pain. The hormone oestrogen seems to produce a higher sensitivity to pain and when conducting the cold pressor test this is a serious issue to be taken into consideration. evaluated sex differences in response to cold pressor pain in normally menstruating women (NMW), women maintained on oral contraceptives (OCW), and men. Testing occurred during 5 phases of the menstrual cycle. All participants completed 10 sessions (2 sessions per phase). During the cold presser test, participants immersed the forearm into water maintained at 4 °C, and pain threshold and tolerance were measured. The results were analysed and the study supports the notion that differences in pain perception between the sexes and among menstrual cycle phases are subtle. However, normally menstruating women showed an increase in pain tolerance and threshold over repeated stimulation, whereas men only exhibited a minor increase in pain threshold, therefore it shows a sex difference in reaction to repeated painful stimuli between men and women. Following our results, it is believed that our results could have been implicated due to the distractions of the participants. The cold pressor test was conducted in a lab where there was other cold compressor tests being conducted, therefore with the level of noise it was easy to be distracted. This can be an issue for methodology. A previous study has undertaken a study on how distraction can affect experimental pain results. The results were found that distraction had varying impact on different aspects of pain responding, and affectively neutral distraction during pain stimulation reduced the sensory pain ratings but not pain tolerance. Affectively neutral distraction may be used to manage a patient’s reaction to brief, painful stimulation, but may not work in long term chronic pain (Hodes, 1990). Also as discussed in the introduction, temperature is an extremely important methodological factor when carrying out the CPT. In this experiment we found it very difficult to keep a perfect modulation of the temperature. Previous studies have shown that this minor glitch in the experiment can have an affective major impact on the results. Although water temperature only had risen to an extra one degree, this should be still taken into account for the outcome of the results. Within our sample size, we obtained 16 subjects. (8 males and 8 females). Although the results are weighted, one can feel that this is too small a sample size to draw correct inferences and conclude from. In the future a bigger sample size should be obtained as there will be a greater sensitivity to the results and different results could possibly have an outcome. In continuation with the methodology implications of the participants, they should of not known what the experiment was about. Some of the subjects stated after the experiment that they already knew this experiment via the media. Therefore, participants could of possibly tried to withstand a threshold for longer as they knew what exactly the experimenters were testing. As the experimenters were all female, in sociological aspects, men could have possibly pretended to not feel pain, in order to impress the experimenters. This can affect the results to an extent. There also could be an implication of anticipation of pain versus actual pain. If the subject is anticipating feeling pain, this can make them think that they feel more pain as they have psychologically believed that this experiment will amount to a certain level of pain. Even though some would conclude that inducing pain and stressors on individuals is ethically wrong, psychology needs a mean to test experimental pain for a growth in psychology. The cold pressor test was the best test to carry out to induce pain as it does not cause any psychological or physiological harm, the participants’ control over the process (i. e. , their ability to withdraw the limb), and the pain only mounts very slowly, the subject can withdraw their hand if it reached a level of any severe pain. After analysing and assessing various discursive points and implications of the study, this study can conclude that there are methodological implications within the cold pressor test. Different studies all have different outcomes on whether there is an actual sex difference within pain tolerance and pain threshold, and this can be due to different variables being used within studies. Further research should progress in the areas of the affect of a difference in water temperature, and anxiety provoked situations in relation to gender difference as there has been previously little research conducted. Berkley, K (1997) Sex differences in pain Behav Brain Sci, 20 pp. 371–380 Dixon, K. E, Thorn, B. E, Ward, L. C (2004) An evaluation of sex differences in psychological and physiological responses to experimentally-induced pain A path analytic description Pain, 112 pp. 188–196 Engel, B. T. (1959), â€Å"Some physiological correlates of hunger and pain†, Journal of experimental psychology, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 389-396. Fillingim, R. B, Maixner, W. (1995) Gender differences in the responses to noxious stimuli Pain Forum, 4, pp. 209–221 Fillingim, RB; Wright, RA (2003). â€Å"Sex Differences and Incentive Effects on Perceptual and Cardiovascular Responses to Cold Pressor Pain†. Psychosomatic Medicine 65 (2): 284–91 Helstrom, B. Lundberg, U. (2000), â€Å"Pain perception to the cold pressor test during the menstrual cycle in relation to oestrogen levels and a comparison with men†,  Integrative Physiological Behavioural Science,  vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 132-141 Hodes, R. L. , Howland, E. W. , Lightfoot, N. Cleeland, C. S. (1990), â€Å"The effects of distraction on responses to cold pressor pain†, Pain, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 109-114. Jones, A. , Spindler, H. Jorgensen, M. M. Zachariae, R. (2002) â€Å"The effect of situation-evoked anxiety and gender on pain report using the cold pressor test†, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 307-313. Lynn B. Cutaneous nociceptors. In: Winlow W, Holden AV. The neurobiology of pain: Symposium of the Northern Neurobiology Group, held at Leeds on 18 April 1983. Manchester : Manchester University Press; 1984. Mitchell, L. A. , MacDonald, R. A. R. Brodie, E. E. (2004), â€Å"Temperature and the Cold Pressor Test†, The Journal of Pain, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 233-238 Raj PP. Taxonomy and classification of pain. In: Niv D, Kreitler S, Diego B, Lamberto A. (2007) The Handbook of Chronic Pain. Nova Biomedical Books; Riley, J. L, Robinson, M. E, Wise, E. A, Mers, C. D,Fillingim, R. B (1998)Sex differences in the perception of noxious experimental stimuli A meta-analysis Pain, 74 pp. 181–187 Thorn, B. E. , Clements, K. L. , Ward, L. C. , Dixon, K. E. , Kersh, B. C. , Boothby, J. L. Chaplin, W. F. 2004, â€Å"Personality factors in the explanation of sex differences in pain catastrophizing and response to experimental pain†,  The Clinical journal of pain,  vol. 0, no. 5, pp. 275-282 von Baeyer, C. L. , Piira, T. , Chambers, C. T. , Trapanotto, M. and Zeltzer, L. K. (2005). Guidelines for the Cold Pressor Task as an Experimental Pain Stimulus for Use With Children. Journal of Pain, Vol 6, No 4, pp 218-227 2!!! a b International Association for the Study of Pain: Pain Definitions [cited 10 Sep 2011]. â€Å"Pain is an unpleasant sensory and em otional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage† Derived from Bonica JJ. The need of a taxonomy. Pain. 1979; 6(3):247–8. How to cite Biopsych Cold Pressor, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Interest Groups And Party Essays - Habits, , Term Papers

Interest Groups And Party The quest for political power. Rarely does a day pass where some form of power struggle does not occur within our government. The importance of the role of American government in the lives of its constituents has continuously grown in conjunction with a corresponding increase in governmental economic and social obligations. As the American state assumes greater power and responsibility in its actions, so must the citizens of the United States. With this increase in modern government participation, private interest groups have emerged as powerful influences in the American political scheme, particularly in the decision-making process. These highly effective organizations exist for several reasons, but especially for one in particular. The principal duty of such an interest group is the preservation of favorable circumstances that allow for that specific group to ideally exist. These interest groups effectively mobilize their efforts through lobbying, political clout, litigation and th rough sheer nepotism to gain favorable public opinion. Two such groups, the National Rifle Association and the tobacco industry interest parties, have been strong in voicing their beliefs. By a thorough study in their respective actions and political convictions, we can begin to see clearly the influence and role that these groups possess in our government. The National Rifle Association has actively represented a strong political opinion concerning gun control and the implementation of related laws. Representing virtually every gun owner and gun manufacturer in America, the NRA carries with it the burden of preserving basically the second amendment right to bear arms. Although the Second Amendment to the Constitution states, ?a well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed,? to what extent can these gun lobbyists argue for reductions in gun laws. Using the well known Brady Bill as an example, we are able to see what a formidable task these interest groups become with respect to the passage of legislature. A seven-year battle. After a long and arduous seven-year struggle, Congress finally was able to implement the Brady Bill as law. Approved as the ?first major gun control legislation?since 1968,? it permitted limitations to gun purchasing in answer ?urban violence and the assassinations of Robert F. Kennedy and the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.? The passed bill called for a five-day waiting period upon the purchase of a hand gun. During this five-day span, information would be sent to the police who would, in turn, run background checks. This was all in hopes that convicted felons, fugitives, drug addicts or the mentally ill, would be prevented from purchasing guns. Despite this historic passage of legislation concerning gun control, the Brady Bill is often described as a ?modest measure that at best will only make a small dent in crime.? The National Rifle Association and other powerful gun interest groups were able to apply great political pressure in order to cause serious alterations from the original bill proposed back in the late 1980's. The NRA argued two points in their rebuttal to the bill. Firstly, they emphasized the Second Amendment right to arms. Secondly, the National Rifle Association stressed that this particular bill would not be effective in the limiting the access criminals would have to guns. Through their efforts, particularly in influencing members of Congress, the gun interest groups were able to get something ?acceptable? passed. Whether it was through campaign contributions or by pressure exerted in the congressperson's constituency, the NRA and its fellow counterparts were able to sway legislators to filibuster during a time immediately preceding a period of Congressional adjournment. By influencing congressional members in such a way, the NRA pressured supporters of the bill to drastically compromise, resulting in passing a bill which was greatly different from the one originally proposed. In analyzing a second interest group, the tobacco industry's lobby organizations, a trend similar to that found in regards to gun control is noticeable. Historically, the government has called for the regulation of various facets in the tobacco industry for three distinct reasons: ?risk to the public health or safety, risk assumed by consenting adults, and risk assumed by children and adolescents.? Basically, the government's stance is founded

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Napoleons Egyptian Campaign

Napoleons Egyptian Campaign In 1798 the French Revolutionary War in Europe reached a temporary pause, with the forces of revolutionary France and their enemies at peace. Only Britain remained at war. The French were still looking to secure their position, wished to knock out Britain out. However, despite Napoleon Bonaparte, the hero of Italy, being assigned a command to prepare for an invasion of Britain, it was clear to all that such an adventure would never succeed: Britain’s Royal Navy was too strong to allow for a workable beachhead. Napoleon’s Dream Napoleon had long harbored dreams of fighting in the Middle East and Asia, and he formulated a plan to strike back by attacking Egypt. A conquest here would secure the French hold on the Eastern Mediterranean, and to Napoleon’s mind open up a route to attack Britain in India. The Directory, the five-man body which ruled France, where equally keen to see Napoleon try his luck in Egypt because it would keep him away from usurping them, and give his troops something to do outside France. There was also the small chance he’d repeat the miracles of Italy. Consequently, Napoleon, a fleet and an army sailed from Toulon in May; he had over 250 transports and 13 ‘ships of the line’. After capturing Malta while on the way, 40,000 French landed in Egypt on July 1st. They captured Alexandria and marched on Cairo. Egypt was notionally part of the Ottoman Empire, but it was under the practical control of the Mameluke military. Napoleon’s force had more than just troops. He had brought with him an army of civilian scientists who were to create the Institute of Egypt in Cairo, to both learn from the east, and begin to ‘civilize’ it. For some historians, the science of Egyptology began seriously with the invasion. Napoleon claimed he was there to defend Islam and Egyptian interests, but he wasn’t believed and rebellions began.​ Battles in the East Egypt might not be controlled by the British, but the Mameluke rulers were no happier to see Napoleon. An Egyptian army marched to meet the French, clashing at the Battle of the Pyramids on July 21st. A struggle of military eras, it was a clear victory for Napoleon, and Cairo was occupied. A new government was installed by Napoleon, ending ‘feudalism’, serfdom, and importing French structures. However, Napoleon could not command at sea, and on August 1st the Battle of the Nile was fought. British naval commander Nelson had been sent to stop Napoleon landing and had missed him while resupplying, but finally found the French fleet and took the chance to attack while it was docked in Aboukir Bay to take on supplies, gaining further surprise by attacking in the evening, on into night, and early in the morning: only two ships of the line escaped (they were later sunk), and Napoleon’s supply line had ceased to exist. At the Nile Nelson destroyed eleven ships of the line, which amounted to a sixth of those in the French navy, including some very new and large craft. It would take years to replace them and this was the pivotal battle of the campaign. Napoleon’s position suddenly weakened, the rebels he had encouraged turned against him. Acerra and Meyer have argued this was the defining battle of the Napoleonic Wars, which hadn’t yet begun. Napoleon couldn’t even take his army back to France and, with enemy forces forming up, Napoleon marched into Syria with a small army. The aim was to prise the Ottoman Empire apart from their alliance with Britain. After taking Jaffa – where three thousand prisoners were executed - he besieged Acre, but this held out, despite the defeat of a relief army sent by the Ottomans. Plague ravaged the French and Napoleon was forced back to Egypt. He nearly suffered a setback when Ottoman forces using British and Russian ships landed 20,000 people at Aboukir, but he moved quickly to attack before the cavalry, artillery, and elites had been landed and routed them. Napoleon Leaves Napoleon now took a decision which has damned him in the eyes of many critics: realising the political situation in France was ripe for change, both for him and against him, and believing only he could save the situation, save his position, and take command of the whole country, Napoleon left – some might prefer abandoned – his army and returned to France in a ship which had to evade the British. He was soon to seize power in a coup d’etat. Post-Napoleon: French Defeat General Kleber was left to manage the French army, and he signed the Convention of El Arish with the Ottomans. This should have allowed him to pull the French army back to France, but the British refused, so Kleber attacked and retook Cairo. He was assassinated a few weeks later. The British now decided to send troops, and a force under Abercromby landed at Aboukir. The British and French fought soon after at Alexandria, and while Abercromby was killed the French were beaten, forced away from Cairo, and into surrender. Another invading British force was being organized in India to attack through the Red Sea. The British now allowed the French force to return to France and prisoners held by Britain were returned after a deal in 1802. Napoleon’s oriental dreams were over.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Red Barons Kills

Red Barons Kills Flying ace Manfred von Richthofen, more commonly known as the  Red Baron,  was not only one of the best pilots of World War I:  he has become an icon of the war itself. Credited with shooting down 80 enemy aircraft, the Red Baron owned the skies. His bright red airplane (a very unusual and ostentatious color for a fighting plane) brought both respect and fear. To the Germans, Richthofen was known as the Red Battle Flier and his exploits brought the German people courage as well as increased morale during the bloody years of the war. Although the Red Baron survived for much longer than most fighter pilots during World War I, he eventually met their same fate. On April 21, 1918, the day after his 80th kill, the Red Baron once again got into his red airplane and went searching for the enemy. Unfortunately, this time, it was the Red Baron who was shot down. Below is a list of the Red Barons kills. Some of these aircraft  held one and others held two people. Not all of the crew members were killed when their airplanes crashed. No. Date Type of Aircraft Location 1 Sept. 17, 1916 FE 2b near Cambrai 2 Sept. 23, 1916 Martinsyde G 100 Somme River 3 Sept. 30, 1916 FE 2b Fremicourt 4 Oct. 7, 1916 BE 12 Equancourt 5 Oct. 10, 1916 BE 12 Ypres 6 Oct. 16, 1916 BE 12 near Ypres 7 Nov. 3, 1916 FE 2b Loupart Wood 8 Nov. 9, 1916 Be 2c Beugny 9 Nov. 20, 1916 BE 12 Geudecourt 10 Nov. 20, 1916 FE 2b Geudecourt 11 Nov. 23, 1916 DH 2 Bapaume 12 Dec. 11, 1916 DH 2 Mercatel 13 Dec. 20, 1916 DH 2 Moncy-le-Preux 14 Dec. 20, 1916 FE 2b Moreuil 15 Dec. 27, 1916 FE 2b Ficheux 16 Jan. 4, 1917 Sopwith Pup Metz-en-Coutre 17 Jan. 23, 1917 FE 8 Lens 18 Jan. 24, 1917 FE 2b Vitry 19 Feb. 1, 1917 BE 2e Thelus 20 Feb. 14, 1917 BE 2d Loos 21 Feb. 14, 1917 BE 2d Mazingarbe 22 Mar. 4, 1917 Sopwith 1 1/2 Strutter Acheville 23 Mar. 4, 1917 BE 2d Loos 24 Mar. 3, 1917 BE 2c Souchez 25 Mar. 9, 1917 DH 2 Bailleul 26 Mar. 11, 1917 BE 2d Vimy 27 Mar. 17, 1917 FE 2b Oppy 28 Mar. 17, 1917 BE 2c Vimy 29 Mar. 21, 1917 BE 2c La Neuville 30 Mar. 24, 1917 Spad VII Givenchy 31 Mar. 25, 1917 Nieuport 17 Tilloy 32 April 2, 1917 BE 2d Farbus 33 April 2, 1917 Sopwith 1 1/2 Strutter Givenchy 34 April 3, 1917 FE 2d Lens 35 April 5, 1917 Bristol Fighter F 2a Lembras 36 April 5, 1917 Bristol Fighter F 2a Quincy 37 April 7, 1917 Nieuport 17 Mercatel 38 April 8, 1917 Sopwith 1 1/2 Strutter Farbus 39 April 8, 1917 BE 2e Vimy 40 April 11, 1917 BE 2c Willerval 41 April 13, 1917 RE 8 Vitry 42 April 13, 1917 FE 2b Monchy 43 April 13, 1917 FE 2b Henin 44 April 14, 1917 Nieuport 17 Bois Bernard 45 April 16, 1917 BE 2c Bailleul 46 April 22, 1917 FE 2b Lagnicourt 47 April 23, 1917 BE 2e Mericourt 48 April 28, 1917 BE 2e Pelves 49 April 29, 1917 Spad VII Lecluse 50 April 29, 1917 FE 2b Inchy 51 April 29, 1917 BE 2d Roeux 52 April 29, 1917 Nieuport 17 Billy-Montigny 53 June 18, 1917 RE 8 Strugwe 54 June 23, 1917 Spad VII Ypres 55 June 26, 1917 RE 8 Keilbergmelen 56 June 25, 1917 RE 8 Le Bizet 57 July 2, 1917 RE 8 Deulemont 58 Aug. 16, 1917 Nieuport 17 Houthulster Wald 59 Aug. 26, 1917 Spad VII Poelcapelle 60 Sept. 2, 1917 RE 8 Zonebeke 61 Sept. 3, 1917 Sopwith Pup Bousbecque 62 Nov. 23, 1917 DH 5 Bourlon Wood 63 Nov. 30, 1917 SE 5a Moevres 64 Mar. 12, 1918 Bristol Fighter F 2b Nauroy 65 Mar. 13, 1918 Sopwith Camel Gonnelieu 66 Mar. 18, 1918 Sopwith Camel Andigny 67 Mar. 24, 1918 SE 5a Combles 68 Mar. 25, 1918 Sopwith Camel Contalmaison 69 Mar. 26, 1918 Sopwith Camel Contalmaison 70 Mar. 26, 1918 RE 8 Albert 71 Mar. 27, 1918 Sopwith Camel Aveluy 72 Mar. 27, 1918 Bristol Fighter F 2b Foucacourt 73 Mar. 27, 1918 Bristol Fighter F 2b Chuignolles 74 Mar. 28, 1918 Armstrong Whitworth FK 8 Mericourt 75 April 2, 1918 FE 8 Moreuil 76 April 6, 1918 Sopwith Camel Villers-Bretonneux 77 April 7, 1918 SE 5a Hangard 78 April 7, 1918 Spad VII Villers-Bretonneux 79 April 20, 1918 Sopwith Camel Bois-de-Hamel 80 April 20, 1918 Sopwith Camel Villers-Bretonneux

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 144

Assignment Example The ‘ice cold’ phrase mentioned on the product also helps in the attraction of the people to buy the coca cola product (Shimp &Terence 58). Additionally, it indicates that its product is a delightful and also heathful to both men and women. Convesely,it also includes the students indicating that it is cold enough for them during the athletics (Shimp &Terence 58). The presence of condoms is highly expanding in the contemporary culture for the youth. This makes their advert offensive due to its unethical presentation. This advertisement has really led many of the youths to sexual activities and various disease transmissions. Additionally, the display of the product on the advert is not pleasing to people and thus the product is not largely marketable. The company uses such an advert to attract customers but the advert also shifts the people’s cultural landscape. Again the company also displays nude people expressing sex action on a bed. This is an offensive advert because it encourages immorality in the society. It is contrary with the culture and thus people do not buy the product (Shimp &Terence